Cataract means ‘waterfall’
That assuming that an abnormal humour developed and flowed in front of the lens to decrease vision. Normal lens is a transparent structure and it’s clouding called cataract. Because of this lens clouding the light rays may get obstruction to entering to the eye and vision decrease.
Causes of cataract
- Premature birth of babies
- Abnormal development of eye
- Age related, normally in Indian population it develops after age of 55 years and above.
- Heredity: may you get cataract earlier (before 55)depends also if you have family history of early cataract development.
- More Ultraviolet irradiation from sunlight.
- Diabetic patient may also get early development of cataract.
- Chain smoker.
Cataract may also develop after some eye conditions like:
- After some eye injury (trauma)
- Retinal disease ( retinal detachment, RP, retinal dystrophy)
- Inflammatory conditions (recurrent uveitis)
There is no medication or eye drops that may get cataract away or cure and not any precaution that keeps cataract away. It is age related conditions and each and every human being have been pass through this, yes the age may vary and the only treatment is surgically removing of cloudy lens which is replace with artificial clear lens or IOL (intraocular lens).
In most cases, waiting to have cataract surgery won't harm your eye, so you have time to consider your options. If your vision is still quite good, you may not need cataract surgery for many years.
Now a days the surgery processed with latest technique the phacoemulsification or you may called as Laser technique. Benefits of this technique is:
Surgery done with the very minor incision like as small as ball pen tip. So no require to take sutures. This can be done with the topical anaesthesia(anaesthetic eye drops).
Types of intraocular lens (IOL):
- Before the surgery, your eye practitioner perform A scan ultrasound test to measure the exact size and shape of your eye to calculate exact power of IOL require to your eye.
- These lenses improve your vision by focusing light on the back of your eye. You won't be able to see or feel the lens. It requires no care and becomes a permanent part of your eye.
- Now a days, different types of IOL available with different features. IOLs are made of plastic, acrylic or silicone. Some IOLs block ultraviolet light. Some IOLs are rigid plastic and implanted through an incision which is some wider than other flexible or soft foldable lenses.
Some of the types of lenses available include :
- Monofocal IOLs: This type of lens has a single focus strength for distance vision. Reading will generally require the use of reading glasses.
- Monofocal toric IOLs: This type of lenses used for that patient who has high cylinderical power and also this corrects distances vision and requires glasses for reading.
- All these monofocal lenses are available in indian and imported material.
- Multifocal IOLs : These lenses are similar to glasses with bifocal or progressive lenses. Different areas of the lens have different focusing strengths, allowing for near, medium and far vision.
- Multifocal lenses are also available in indian and imported material.
- This is best corrective vision option for who want to remove their spectacle after surgery.
- Multifocal toric IOLs: This lenses for the patient who have high cylindrical power and don’t want to wear glasses for distance or even near vision.
- Cataract surgery successfully restores vision in the majority of people who have the procedure.
- People who've had cataract surgery may develop a secondary cataract. The medical term for this common complication is known as posterior capsule opacification (PCO). This happens when the back of the lens capsule
— the part of the lens that wasn't removed during surgery and that now supports the lens implant
— becomes cloudy and impairs your vision.
- PCO can be remove with the 5 min, painless procedure which can perform in OPD section ( no need of operation) called YAG (yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser capsulotomy.
- After performing that your vision become clear with in a week.